Knowledge in geography of india

Geography Chapter 13 Water

Notes for geography chapter water. Class 11.

Natural Hazard and Disaster

Notes of class 11 Geography Natural Hazard and Disaster

Biodiversity and Conservation.

Class 11 Geography notes for Biodiversity and Conservation.

Water in the Atmosphere

Class 11 Geography notes of Water in the Atmosphere.


Notes for chapter 4 LIFE ON THE EARTH. Class 11.

Composition and structure of atmosphere.

Notes of Composition and structure of atmosphere. Class 11

Geomorphic Processes class 11 notes

Notes for geography Geomorphic Processes Class 11.


Notes for Composition and structure of atmosphere. Class 11th.

Solar Radiation, Heat balance and Temperature.

Notes for Solar Radiation, Heat balance and Temperature.

The Northern Mountains (Himalaya)

The Northern Mountains (Himalayas)The Himalayan Mountains form the northern mountain region of India.They are the highest mountain ranges in the world.These mountain ranges start from Pamir Knot in the west and extend up to Purvanchal in the east.Youngest & Loftiest mountain range of the worldFormed by Tectonic Forces & are 2400 Km in LengthAre of varying width → from 400 Km in Kashmir to 160 Km Arunachal PradeshAltitudinal variations are greater in the eastern part than in the western partProminent Features → Highest peaks, Deep valleys & Gorges, Glaciers etc.The Himalayan Mountains can be further divided into following major ranges -Trans Himalayas Immediate to the north of the Great Himalayan RangeMost of the part of this Himalayan range lies in the Tibet and hence also called Tibetan HimalayaRanges →Zaskar, K2 (Godwin Austin), Ladakh, Kailash and Karakoram RangeGreater Himalaya (Inner Himalaya) Always covered with snow →Known as HimadriAverage height →6000 mtsMost continuous rangeCore composed of graniteRanges → Mt. Everest, KanchenjungaForests type →Needle leaved coniferousMiddle Himalaya Average height → 3500 – 4500 mtsMost of the valleys & hill stations are located in this range e.g. Kashmir, Kathmandu , NainitalRanges →Pir Panjal, Dhaula Dhar, MahabharatForests type →Broad leaved evergreenOuter Himalaya (Shivalik Range/ Himachals) Average height →600 – 1200 mtsMost of the Dun & Duars are located in this rangeEx. Dehradun, Patlidun (longitudinal valleys)Deciduous type forests

Eastern hills / Purvanchal

Eastern hills / PurvanchalBrahmaputra marks the eastern border of the Himalayas.Beyond the Dihang gorge, the Himalayas bend sharply towards south and form the Eastern hills or Purvanchal which run through the NE India & are mostly composed of sandstonesMishmi hills, Patkai Hills, Naga Hills, Manipuri Hills and Mizo HillsClassification of Himalayas on the basis of Geographic LocationPunjab Himalayas / Kashmir Himalaya / Himachal Himalaya → Between the Indus and SutlejKumaon Himalayas → Between Sutlej and Kali riversNepal Himalayas → Between Kali and Tista riversAssam Himalayas → Between Tista and Dihang rivers Significance of Himalayas for IndiaStrategic significanceActs as a natural frontier of India with other countries (China, Pakistan, Afghanistan)Climatic significance Prevent further northward movement of summer monsoon and also prevent cold northern winds from Siberia to enter into IndiaAgricultural significanceRivers from Himalayas deposits a lot of sediment on its foothold, from which are formed India’s most fertile agricultural grounds known as Northern plainsEconomic significanceHuge hydro-electric power potential of Himalayan rivers + Himalayan timber + Himalayan Herbs & Medicinal plantsTourism SignificanceComprises of Large ecological biodiversity, natural views & hill stations