Knowledge in geography of india

The North Indian Plain

The North Indian PlainFormed by depositional work of Rivers viz. Indus, Ganga & Brahamputra2400 km long & varying in width from 240 to approx. 320 kmDivided into three sections, viz. the Punjab Plain (Indus), the Ganga Plain and the Brahmaputra PlainPunjab PlainsFormed by the Indus and its tributaries with major portion of this plains in PakistanGanga PlainsBetween Ghaggar and Tista rivers (Haryana, Delhi, UP, Bihar, part of Jharkhand and West Bengal lie in the Ganga plains)Brahmaputra PlainsFrom Tista to Dihang with major portion lying in AssamNorthern plains subdivisionsBhabhar Lies along foothills of Shiwaliks, From Indus to TistaLaid down by streams coming from hillsComprises of pebble studded rocks (Highly porous bed plain)Due to high porosity, streams disappears here Tarai Lies south of Bhabhar & runs parallel to itMarked by re-emergence of underground streams of Bhabhar beltHighly alluvial & agricultural landHas a high water table due to groundwater percolating down from the adjacent zoneKhadar Flood plains with newer alluvium deposited by flood almost every yearMarked with fertile soilZone of intensive agricultureNon porous, clayey and loamyBhangarAlluvial terrace lying above the level of flood plainsComposed of the oldest alluvial soilcoarse in nature, contain kankar (lime nodules), pebbles, gravelsSoil of this region is locally known as kankar viz. calcareous concretions

The Peninsular Plateaus

The Peninsular PlateausLargest of India’s physical divisions – Comprises of broad & shallow valleys with rounded hillsTriangular in shape; composed of the oldest rocks & Surrounded by hillsNarmada – Tapi divides it into 2 parts viz. Central highland & Deccan plateauDivision of Peninsular PlateauThe Central Highland Malwa PlateauBundelkhandBaghelkhandChotanagpur PlateauThe Deccan Plateau Deccan TrapWestern GhatsEastern GhatsNorth-East Extension

The Central Highlands

The Central HighlandsLies to the north of the Narmada river between Aravali in North & Vindhya range in southCovers the major portion of the Malwa plateau (Madhya Pradesh)Rivers in this region flow from southwest to northeast; which indicates the slope of this regionFurther extension of it is Bundelkhand, Bhaghelkhand & Chhota Nagpur PlateauChambal & Betwa flows through it →Region known as Bedland (Not fit for cultivation)Malwa PlateauLies in Madhya Pradesh b/w Aravali & VindhyasExtension of it is Bundelkhand, Bhaghelkhand & Chota Nagpur PlateauBundelkhand Plateau  Lies along the borders of UP & MPHas been transformed into ravines by extensive erosional activities of river Chambal & its tributariesChhotanagpur Plateau NE part of Peninsular plateauIncludes Jharkhand, parts of Chhattisgarh & WB,Highest Peak ParasnathFamous as Patland plateau & known as ruhr of India

Deccan Plateau

Deccan PlateauLargest plateau in India; Lies to the south of the Narmada River; Shaped as inverted triangle.Surrounded by Satpura hills, Mahadeo hills, Maikala range, Amarkantak hills and Rajmahal hills i the north; Western Ghats in the west and the Eastern Ghats in the eastVolcanic in origin, made up of horizontal layers of solidified lava forming trap structure with step like appearanceSedimentary layers are also found in between the layers of solidified lava, making it inter-trapping in structureAverage elevation of Western Ghats is 900 – 1600 metres; compared to 600 metres of Eastern GhatsSlopes towards east and south and descends abruptly towards west making sahayadri rangesThe plateau is suitable for the cultivation of cotton; home to rich mineral resources & a source to generate hydroelectric power

Western Ghats

Western GhatsFolded parts of Deccan PlateauAlso known as ShayadriesMore Continuous & higher than Eastern GhatsSeparated from coast by narrow coastal plainsRich watersheds give birth to large peninsular rivers like Godavari and KrishnaExtends from Tapi in North to Kanyakumari in south Important Passes (Rail Links)Thalghat → Mumbai —- KolkataBhorghat → Mumbai —- ChennaiPhalghat → Kochi ——– Chennai Important Hill RangesNilgiri Range (Highest peak → Doda Betta along ooty (Udhagmandalam) →TNHighest Peak of South India → Anaimudi From which 3 ranges radiates in 3 directions Cardmom Hills to south,Anamalai hills to northPalni to North East

Eastern Ghats

Eastern GhatsExtends from Odisha to North of Nilgiri hillsDiscontinuous & lower then Western GhatsDo not give birth to important rivers like western ghatsSeparated from coast by very wide coastal plainsGeologically older than western ghatsMahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri cut through this range to merge with Bay of BengalThe Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats meet in the Nilgiri hillsTelangana Plateau Part of deccan plateaulocated on north of river Krishna Karnataka Plateau South of deccan lava regionConsist of Bababudan hillsFamous for iron ores Dandakaranya Plateau Forms parts of Chhatisgarh & OdishaContains igneous & metamorphic rocks of Archaen periodRiver Indravati & Mahandi flows throuth this plateauLargely inhabited by Gond tribes Shillong PlateauPart of Peninsular Deccan PlateauMade of Garo, Khasi & Jaintia HillsWorld’s highest rainfall receiving point Mawsynram is situated here

Desert and Coastal areas

The Great Indian DesertExtends from the western margins of the Aravali HillsLuni is the only prominent riverThe Coastal regionsExcluding the islands, the mainland of India has 6,100 kms length of coastlineExtends from Kutch in Gujarat in the west to the Gangetic delta in the eastThe coast of India is divided into western coast and eastern coastal plains.The coastal regions of India are known for agriculture, trade, industrial centres, tourist centres, fishing and salt makingThey also provide important hinterlands for the ports

Western and Eastern coastal regions

Western Coastal PlainsLies between Western Ghats & Arabian sea from Gujrat in north to Kanyakumari in southNarrower & wetter than Eastern plainsDivided into Malabar coast, Kannada Coast, Konkan coast, Kanyakumari Coast, Kachchh and Kathiawad peninsulasKathiawar Coast → Kutch to Daman (Tapti, Narmada, Sabarmati & Mahi river deposit huge load of sediments in the Gulf of Cambay & form estuaries)Konkan Coast → Between Daman & GoaKannada Coast → Goa to CannanoreKanyakumari Coast  → Cannanore to Cape CamorinMalabar Coast → Kannada + Kanyakumari Coast Important Ports → Mumbai, Marmagoa, Cochin, Mangalore, Nhava-Sheva and KandlaMarked with Lagoons → Ashtamudi & Vembanad called Kayals → Kerala Eastern coastal PlainsLies between Eastern Ghats & Bay of Bengal from Gangetic delta in north to Kanyakumari in southKnown as Land of Deltas viz. of Mahanadi, Krishna, Kaveri & GodavariBroader but drier than Western plainsConsists of following sub coastsUtkal coast → Deltaic plains of Ganga to Mahanadi delta (Famous Chilka lake is located in this plain)Andhra Coast        → Utkal plains to Pulicat lake (Contains deltas of Godavari & Krishna Rivers, & famous Kolleru lake)Northern Circars → Utkal Coast + Andhra Coast (Between Mahanadi & Krishna)Coromandal Coast → Between Krishna & Kanyakumari (Consist of Kaveri Delta)Freshwater Kolleru Lake → Between Godavari & KrishnaMarked with Famous Lagoons → Chilka lake (Orissa) & Pulicat (Tamilnadu)Chilka Lake is the largest salt water lake in IndiaIt lies in the state of Odisha, to the south of the Mahanadi Delta

Indian Islands

Indian IslandsTotal 247 islands in India → 204 islands in Bay of Bengal and 43 in the Arabian SeaFew coral islands in the Gulf of Mannar alsoAndaman and Nicobar Islands in Bay of Bengal consist of hard volcanic rocksThe middle Andaman and Nicobar Islands are the largest islands of IndiaLakshadweep islands in the Arabian Sea are formed by coralsThe southern – most point of India is in Nicobar Island, known as Indira PointFormerly Indira point was called Pigmalion Point, it is submerged now, after 2004 TsunamiAndaman & Nicobar IslandsLakshadweep IslandsVolcanic islands representing submarine volcanismRepresent the surfaces of submerged folds viz. extension of Himalaya, precisely Arakan yoma fold mountains of MyanmarFormed of Granite rocks & have high hills &l peaks for ex. Saddle peakEquatorial climate with tropical rain-forestsa union of coral islands, entirely different from A & N islandscomprises of large number of dead corals, fringing, barrier and atoll coral reefsHave calcium rich soils filled with organic limestoneHave scattered vegetation of palm species

Prominent Islands of India

Prominent Indian IslandsA & N IslandsContinuation of Arakan Yoma mountain range of MyanmarNicobarJust 147 km from Sumatra island (Indonesia)Saddle PeakHighest Peak of AndamanPamban IslandBetween India & SrilankaSalasetteGroup of 7 islands, known as Mumbai todayDiuFishing IslandNew Moore IslandDisputed site b/w India & BangladeshWheeler IslandMissile launching island in BOB → Near Odisha coastSriharikotaSplit Island → Rocket launching site in BOB in Andhra PradeshWellingtonNaval Station → KeralaSignificance of Indian Ocean for India Strategic significance → India overlooks some of the most important sea lanes viz. Suez Canal, Malacca StraitEconomic significance → Long coastline, 2.02 million sq km EEZ (Exclusive economic zone)Tourism Significance → Marine biodiversity and rich ecosystem with coral reefs, mangrovesLarge Fishing potential, Wave energy & Tidal energy potential, Zone of HydrocarbonsGeneration of south west Monsoon

River System of India – Indus River System

River System of India – Indus River SystemPrime Watershed of River Origin in IndiaHimalayas and Karakoram rangesVindhya, Satpura ranges and Chota Nagpur PlateauWestern GhatsRiver categories on the basis of their originHimalayan RiversDeccan RiversCoastal RiversRivers of the inland Drainage basinTop 5 largest rivers of India Ganga > Godavari > Krishna > Yamuna > BrahmaputraIndus River SystemIndusAncient name → SindhuOrigin → Bokharchu Glacier, Near MansarovarIn Tibet, Called Singi Khamban / Lion’s mouthEnters In India through Ladakh, flows only in J &KEnters Pak through hair pin bend of Nanga ParbatFinally Discharges in Arabian SeaFlows approx. ( 709 / 2880 ) Km in IndiaIndia uses 20 % of its water by Indo Pak water treaty of 1960Shyok Originates from Rimo GlacierKnown as river of deathflows through Ladakh in IndiaA tributary of the Indus RiverJhelumAncient name → VitastaOrigin → Verinag Spring (Kashmir)Tributary of Chenab, flows only in J &KFlows Northward to Wular LakeCut through gorge in Pir- Panjal range to reach Muzzafarabad (POK)ChenabAncient name → Akshani / IskmatiOrigin → Bara Lacha Pass (Himachal)Known as chandra-bhaga in HimachalChandra River → Water flowing south from the passBhaga River     → Water Flowing north from the passFlows Northward & parallel to Pir –Panjal Range for some distanceCut through gorge in Pir – Panjal & Turns southwardLargest tributary of Indus, Flows through Himachal & J & KFamous Projects →Duhasti, Baglihar & Salal hydroelectric projectRaviAncient name → PurushniOrigin → Kullu hills near Rohtang Pass (Himachal)Tributary of ChenabSmallest of 5 riversFlows through Indo – Pak boundaryFlows northward b/w Pir – Panjal & Dhauladhar RangesCut a gorge through Dhauladhar range & flows southwardBeasAncient name → VipashaOrigin → Beas kund near Rohtang Pass, HimachalTributary of SatlujOnly river flowing entirely in IndiaRuns southward, Cut a deep gorge in Dhauladhar & turns west to meet Satluj near Harike (Punjab)Famous Project → Pong DamSutlujAncient name → ShatadruOrigin → Rakas lake, Tibet, near MansarovarEnter Himachal at Shipki La PassCollects water from Ravi, Chenab, Jhelum & Beas to join Indus near Mithalkot (Pak)Famous Projects → Naptha Jhakri Project & Bhakra Nagal Dam with Govind Sagar Reservoir

Ganga River System

Ganga River SystemGanga TributariesYamuna, Gomti, Ghaghara, Gandak, Kosi, Son, Tons & PunpunGhaghara TributariesSarda & RaktiKosi TributariesArun, Tamur & Sun KoshiYamuna TributariesChambal, Sind, Betwa & KenChambal TributariesKali Sindh, Parvati & BanasRiver GangaOrigin → As Bhagirathi from Gangotri Glacier (Uttarkashi – Uttarakhand)Alakananda unites with Bhagirathi at Devprayag, Uttarakhand → Henceforth known as GangaPassing through Rishikesh, it debounches in plains of HaridwarFrom Haridwar, it flows Southward to reach Allahabad where it joins YamunaNear Rajmahal Hills, it turns southeast & bifurcate at Farraka into Hoogly (Kolkata) & Padma (BD)At Bangladesh, Ganga merges with Brahmputra (Known as Jamuna in Bangladesh) at Goalundo GhatsMixture is known as Padma River Then it merges with Meghna & finally falls in Bay of BengalMeghna → Known as Barack river in India Major tributaries → Yamuna, Gomti, Ghaghara, Gandak, Kosi, Son, Tons & Punpun Major Tributaries of Ganga River SystemGhagharaOrigin →Bharchachungar Glacier (Rakas lake) near MansarovarJoins Ganga at ChhapraKnown as Manchu or Karnali in NepalKnown as Saryu or Ghaghra in UPPerennial riverMajor tributaries →Sarda & Rakti GandakOrigin → Sino – Nepal Boundary (Dhaulagiri range)Known as Kalyani in NepalMajor River of NepalJoins Ganga at Sonpur, BiharKosiOrigin → Gosainath peak (Tibet)Merges with river Ganga at Bhagalpur (Bihar)Consists of 7 streams & known as Saptakoshi in NepalMain stream → Arun, Tamur & Sun KoshiFormerly Known as Sorrow of BiharMajor Projects → Kusha DamSonOrigin → Amarkantak Plateau (Near north of origin of Narmada)Flows through Kaimur Range to meet Ganga at Patna GomtiOriginates from Gomat Taal / Fulhaar jheel – PilibhitA tributary of GangaYamunaOrigin → Yamunotri Glacier (Uttarkashi – Uttarakhand)Largest Tributary of GangaAfter cutting deep gorge across Shivalik, it enters into plains near TajewalaFlows southward up to Agra & then turns southeast to meet Ganga at AllahabadFamous tributaries →Chambal, Sind, Betwa & KenBetwaMajor Tributaries →Tributary of Yamuna, rises from Vindhya range, MPMajor Projects      → Matatila dam & Rajghat damKen Rises from Kaimur hills in Satna (Madhya Pradesh), a tributary of YamunaFamous for its Shajar stone & Raneh waterfallsChambalOrigin → Vindhya Range (Mhow, MP)Passes through Kota & Dhaulpur (Rajasthan)Merge with Yamuna at Etawah (UP)forms boundary between Rajasthan & MPMajor tributaries       →Kali Sindh, Parvati & BanasMain Power Projects → Gandhisagar, Rana Pratap Sagar & Jawahar SagarBanas Originate from eastern slopes of AravaliTributary of ChambalDamodar  Origin → Eastern part of Chhota Nagpur PlateuMeets Hoogli at FaltaPower Projects →Talaiya, Maithan, Barakar & Panchet