Shantha Kumar . V

Be confident,Be powerful,Motivate urslf to be best

Student at Paavai Engineering College

Studied at Our lady's higher secondary school



1.1 Programming Paradigms 1.2 Basic concepts Of Object Oriented Programming 1.3 Benefits Of OOP 1.3.1 Structure of C++ 1.3.2 Application of C++ 1.4 Tokens, Keywords, Constants 1.4.1 Data Types 1.4.2 Operators And Expressions 1.4.3 Control Flow 1.4.4 Arrays 1.4.5 Strings 1.4.6 Pointers 1.5 Classes and Objects 1.5.1 Specifying a Class 1.5.2 Creating objects 1.5.3 Accessing class Members 1.6 Functions in C++ 1.7 Constructors and Destructor

electrical machine

MODULE- I Philosophy of Protection The purpose of an Electric Power System is to generate and supply electrical energy to consumers. The power system should be designed and managed to deliver this energy to the utilization points with both reliability and economically The capital investment involved in power system for the generation, transmission and distribution is so great that the proper precautions must be taken to ensure that the equipment not only operates as nearly as possible to peak efficiency, but also must be protected from accidents The normal path of the electric current is from the power source through copper (or aluminium) conductors in generators, transformers and transmission lines to the load and it is confined to this path by insulation. Nature of Faults  Short circuit fault- current  Open circuit fault- voltage In terms of seriousness of consequences of a fault, short circuits are of far greater concern than open circuits, although some open circuits present some potential hazards to personnel Classification of short circuited Faults • Three phase faults (with or without earth connection) • Two phase faults (with or without earth connection) • Single phase to earth faults Classification of Open Circuit Faults • Single Phase open Circuit • Two phase open circuit • Three phase open circuit

computer graphics

Locator Devices: to indicate a position and/or orientation to select a displayed entity Tablet, Mouse, Trackball, Joystick, Touch Panel, Light Pen Keyboard devices: to input a character string Alphanumeric keyboard (coded - get single ASCII character, unencoded - get state of all keys - more flexible) Valuator Devices: to input a single value in the space of real numbers Rotary dials (Bounded or Unbounded), Linear sliders Choice Devices: to select from a set of possible actions or choices Function keys

one dimensional compressable flow

consider the low of through a one dimensional region as represented by the shacked area in fry .this region may be a normal shock wave or it may be a region with heat addition in either case the flow properties change as a function of a as the gas flow through the region.


A read-only memory (ROM) is a device that includes both the decoder and the OR gates within a single IC package. The connections between the outputs of the decoder and the inputs of the OR gates can be specified for each particular configuration. A ROM is essentially a memory (or storage) device in which permanent binary information is stored. The binary information must be specified by the designer and is then embedded in the unit to form the required interconnection pattern. ROMs come with special internal electronic fuses that can be "programmed" for a specific configuration. Once the pattern is established, it stays within the unit even when power is turned off and on again. It consists of n input lines and m output lines. Each bit combination of the input variables is called an address. Each bit combination that comes out of the output lines is called a word. The number of bits per word is equal to the number of output lines, m. An address is essentially a binary number that denotes one of the min terms of n variables. The number of distinct addresses possible with n input variables is 2n. An output word can be selected by a unique address, and since there are 2n distinct addresses in a ROM, there are 2n distinct words that are said to be stored in the unit.


Genera/.-Dams may be classified into a number of different categories, depending upon the purpose of the classification. For the purposes of this manual, it is convenient to consider three broad classifications: Dams are classified according to their use, their hydraulic design, or the materials of which they are constructed. 4.2. Classification According to Use.-Dams may be classified according to the broad function they serve, such as storage, diversion, or detention. Refinements of these classifications can also be made by considering the specific functions involved. Storage dams are constructed to impound water during periods of surplus supply for use during periods of deficient supply. These periods may be seasonal, annual, or longer. Many small dams impound the spring runoff for use in the dry summer season.


Introduction: Basic concepts of Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic, Differences between conventional computing and Neuro-Fuzzy computing, Characteristics of Neuro-Fuzzy computing Fuzzy Set Theory: Basic definitions and terminology and membership functions – Formulation and parameters, basic operations of fuzzy sets – complement, intersection vision, T-norm and Tconorm Introduction Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic Fuzzy sets were introduced by Zadeh in 1965 to represent/manipulate data and information possessing non-statistical uncertainties. It was specifically designed to mathematically represent uncertainty and vagueness and to provide formalized tools for dealing with the imprecision intrinsic to many problems. However, the story of fuzzy logic started much more earlier . To devise a concise theory of logic, and later mathematics, Aristotle posited the so-called‖Laws of Thought‖.


Reed Solomon Codes – Reed-Solomon Error Probability, Why R-S codes perform well against burst noise, R-S performance as a function of size, redundancy and code rate. Interleaving and Concatenated Codes- Block interleaving, Convolutional Interleaving, Concatenated Codes, Coding and Interleaving Applied to the Compact Disc, Digital Audio Systems- CIRC encoding, CIRC decoding, Interpolation and muting. Turbo Codes- Turbo code Concepts, log-likelihood Algebra


For proper growth and maturity of the crops, water is of vital importance throughout the crop period. The water requirement may vary from crop to crop, from soil to soil and from period to period. Again, the total water requirement for a crop is not supplied at a time, but at a fixed interval so that the root zone of the crop may remain saturated throughout the crop period. Generally, the additional requirement is fulfilled by the irrigation system.


Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials. Geotechnical engineering is important in civil engineering, but also has applications in military, mining, petroleum and other engineering disciplines that are concerned with construction occurring on the surface or within the ground. Geotechnical engineering uses principles of soil mechanics and rock mechanics to investigate subsurface conditions and materials; determine the relevant physical/mechanical and chemical properties of these materials; evaluate stability of natural slopes and man-made soil deposits; assess risks posed by site conditions; design earthworks and structure foundations; and monitor site conditions, earthwork and foundation construction.[1][2] A typical geotechnical engineering project begins with a review of project needs to define the required material properties. Then follows a site investigation of soil, rock, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest to determine their engineering properties including how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. Site investigations are needed to gain an understanding of the area in or on which the engineering will take place. Investigations can include the assessment of the risk to humans, property and the environment from natural hazards such as earthquakes, landslides, sinkholes, soil liquefaction, debris flows and rockfalls. A geotechnical engineer then determines and designs the type of foundations, earthworks, and/or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be built. Foundations are designed and constructed for structures of various sizes such as high-rise buildings, bridges, medium to large commercial buildings, and smaller structures where the soil conditions do not allow code-based design. Foundations built for above-ground structures include shallow and deep foundations. Retaining structures include earth-filled dams and retaining walls. Earthworks include embankments, tunnels, dikes and levees, channels, reservoirs, deposition of hazardous waste and sanitary landfills. Geotechnical engineers are extensively involved in earthen and concrete dam projects, evaluating the subsurface conditions at the dam site and the side slopes of the reservoir, the seepage conditions under and around the dam and the stability of the dam under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions. Geotechnical engineering is also related to coastal and ocean engineering. Coastal engineering can involve the design and construction of wharves, marinas, and jetties. Ocean engineering can involve foundation and anchor systems for offshore structures such as oil platforms. The fields of geotechnical engineering and engineering geology are closely related, and have large areas of overlap. However, the field of geotechnical engineering is a specialty of engineering, where the field of engineering geology is a specialty of geology. Coming from the fields of engineering and science, respectively, the two may approach the same subject, such as soil classification, with different methods


Thermochemistry is the study of the heat energy associated with chemical reactions and/or physical transformations. A reaction may release or absorb energy, and a phase change may do the same, such as in melting and boiling. Thermochemistry focuses on these energy changes, particularly on the system's energy exchange with its surroundings. Thermochemistry is useful in predicting reactant and product quantities throughout the course of a given reaction. In combination with entropy determinations, it is also used to predict whether a reaction is spontaneous or non-spontaneous, favorable or unfavorable. Endothermic reactions absorb heat, while exothermic reactions release heat. Thermochemistry coalesces the concepts of thermodynamics with the concept of energy in the form of chemical bonds. The subject commonly includes calculations of such quantities as heat capacity, heat of combustion, heat of formation, enthalpy, entropy, free energy, and calories. The world's first ice-calorimeter, used in the winter of 1782-83, by Antoine Lavoisier and Pierre-Simon Laplace, to determine the heat evolved in various chemical changes; calculations which were based on Joseph Black’s prior discovery of latent heat. These experiments mark the foundation of thermochemistry. Contents 1 History 2 Calorimetry 3 Systems 4 Processes 5 See also 6 References 7 External links History Thermochemistry rests on two generalizations. Stated in modern terms, they are as follows:[1] Lavoisier and Laplace's law (1780): The energy change accompanying any transformation is equal and opposite to energy change accompanying the reverse process.[2] Hess' law (1840): The energy change accompanying any transformation is the same whether the process occurs in one step or many. These statements preceded the first law of thermodynamics (1845) and helped in its formulation. Lavoisier, Laplace and Hess also investigated specific heat and latent heat, although it was Joseph Black who made the most important contributions to the development of latent energy changes. Gustav Kirchhoff showed in 1858 that the variation of the heat of reaction is given by the difference in heat capacity between products and reactants: dΔH / dT = ΔCp. Integration of this equation permits the evaluation of the heat of reaction at one temperature from measurements at another temperature.[3][4] Calorimetry The measurement of heat changes is performed using calorimetry, usually an enclosed chamber within which the change to be examined occurs. The temperature of the chamber is monitored either using a thermometer or thermocouple, and the temperature plotted against time to give a graph from which fundamental quantities can be calculated. Modern calorimeters are frequently supplied with automatic devices to provide a quick read-out of information, one example being the differential scanning calori


Electrochemical Cell & Galvanic Cell: Electrochemical cell is a system or arrangement in which two electrodes are fitted in the same electrolyte or in two different electrolytes, which are joined by a salt bridge. Electrochemical cell is of two types. (a) Electrolytic Cell (b) Galvanic Cell or Voltaic Cell Electrolytic Cell: It is a device in which electrolysis (chemical reaction involving oxidation and reduction) is carried out by using electricity or in which conversion of electrical energy into chemical energy is done. Galvanic Cell: The device used to convert the chemical energy produced on a red-ox reaction into electrical energy is called an electrochemical cell or simply a chemical cell. These are also called galvanic cells or voltaic cell after the names of Luigi Galvanic and Alessandro Volta who were first to perform experiments on the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy. In electrochemical cell, a spontaneous red-ox reaction is carried out in an indirect manner and the decrease in free energy during chemical reaction appears as electrical energy. An indirect red-ox reaction is such that reduction and oxidation processes are carried out in two separate vessels called half-cells. Daniel Cell: It consists of two half-cells. The left hand half-cell contains a zinc metal electrode dipped in ZnSo4 solution. The half-cell on the right hand side consists of Cu metal electrode in a solution of CuSo4. A salt bridge that prevents the mechanical mixing of the solution joins the half-cells. When the zinc and copper electrodes are joined by a wire the following observation are made. (a) There is flow of electric current through the external circuit. (b) The Zn rod loses its mass while copper rod gains in the mass. (c) The concentration of ZnSo4solution increases while the concentration of CuSo4 solution decreases. (d) The solutions in both the compartments remain electrically neutral. During the passages of electric current through external circuit, electrons flow from zinc electrode to the copper electrode. At the zinc electrode, zinc metal is oxidized to zinc ions, which go into the solution. The electrons released at the electrode travel through the external circuit to the copper electrode where they