Knowledge in regular grammar


formal language of automata includes dfa ,nfa ,epsilon nfa,epsilon dfa,turing machine,chomsky hierarchy,regular expressions and regular grammars.


formal language of automata dealts with regular grammar and regular expressions with deterministic and non deterministic automata.

Debates and Group Discussions

Contains detailed notes about Debates and Group Discussions.

Debate and Group Discussions

Contains detailed notes about Debates and Group Discussions. Helps a lot for interviews.

Delhi University BCOM hons ,CBCS

Detailed assignment of English of BCOM Hons program under Delhi university . This course is called as the AECC i.e all elective compulsory course which is of semester 1 of the course mentioned . This course includes basic level grammar topics and writing topics.

Notes on Proposition

PREPOSITIONA preposition is a word used to link nouns, pronouns, or phrases to other words within a sentence. They act to connect the people, objects, time and locations of a sentence.  Prepositions are usually short words, and they are normally placed directly in front of nouns. In some cases, you’ll find prepositions in front of gerund verbs.Type of PrepositionsPrepositions of Time Basic examples of time prepositions include: at, on, in, before and after. They are used to help indicate when something happened, happens or will happen. It can get a little confusing though, as many different prepositions can be used.Prepositions of time examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification.For example:·        I was born on July 4th, 1982.·        I was born in·        I was born at exactly 2am.·        I was born two minutes before my twin brother.·        I was born after the Great War ended.The above makes it seem quite difficult, with five different prepositions used to indicate when something happened. However, there is a set of guidelines that can help decide which preposition to use:For years, months, seasons, centuries and times of day, use the preposition in:·        I first met John in·        It’s always cold in J·        Easter falls in spring each year.·        The Second World War occurred in the 20th·        We eat breakfast in the morning.For days, dates and specific holiday days, use the preposition on.1.   We go to school on Mondays, but not on2.   Christmas is on December 25th.3.   Buy me a present on my birthday.For times, indicators of exception and festivals, use the preposition at:·        Families often argue at·        I work faster at·        Her shift finished at 7pm.Before and after should be much easier to understand than the other examples of prepositions of time. Both are used to explain when something happened, happens or will happen, but specifically in relation to another thing.·        Before I discovered this bar, I used to go straight home after·        We will not leave before·        David comes before Bryan in the line, but afterOther prepositions of time could include: During, about, around, until and throughout.·        The concert will be staged throughout the month of May.·        I learned how to ski during the holidays.·        He usually arrives around·        It was about six in the morning when we made it to bed.·        The store is open until midnight.Prepositions of PlaceTo confuse matters a bit, the most common prepositions to indicate time – on, at, in – are also the most common prepositions to indicate position. However, the rules are a little clearer as place prepositions are a more rigid concept than time prepositions.Prepositions of place examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification.·        The cat is on the table.·        The dogs are in the kennel.·        We can meet at theThe guidelines can be broken down as follows:On is used when referring to something with a surface:·        The sculpture hangs on the wall.·        The images are on the page.·        The specials are on the menu, which is on the table.In is used when referring to something that is inside or within confined boundaries. This could be anything, even a country: Examples:1.   Jim is in France, visiting his aunt in the hospital.2.   The whiskey is in the jar in the fridge.3.   The girls play in the garden.At is used when referring to something at a specific point. Examples:1.   The boys are at the entrance at the movie theatre.2.   He stood at the bus stop at the corner of Water and High streets.3.   We will meet at the airport.Lot’s of other prepositions of place, such as under, over, inside, outside, above and below are used in English. There is, however, a lot less confusion as they refer to rigid positions rather than abstract ones.·        The cat is under the table.·        Put the sandwich over·        The key is locked inside the car.·        They stepped outside the house.·        Major is ranked above·        He is waving at you from below the stairs.Prepositions of MovementPrepositions of movement are quite easy to understand as they are less abstract than prepositions of place and time. Essentially, they describe how something or someone moves from one place to another. The most commonly used preposition of movement is to, which usually serves to highlight that there is movement towards a specific destination.Prepositions of movement examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification.·        He has gone on vacation to·        She went to the bowling alley every Friday last summer.·        I will go to bed when I am tired.·        They will go to the zoo if they finish their errands.Other more specific prepositions of movement include: through, across, off, down and into. These prepositions can sometimes get mixed up with others. While they are similar, they have individual meanings that add context to the movement.Across refers to moving from one side to another.·        Mike travelled across America on his motorcycle.·        Rebecca and Judi are swimming across the lake.Through refers to moving directly inside something and out the other end.·        The bullet Ben shot went through the window.·        The train passes through the tunnel.Into refers to entering or looking inside something.·        James went into the room.·        They stare into the darkness.Up, over, down, past and around indicate directions of movement. Examples:1.   Jack went up the hill.2.   Jill came tumbling down3.   We will travel over rough terrain on our way to Grandma’s house.4.   The horse runs around the track all morning.5.   A car zoomed past a truck on the highway 



Classification Of Grammars In Theory Of Computation

This pdf tells about the type of grammars used in theory of computations. Also what is grammar and how it is used in computations.

Regular Grammar IN TOC

This PDF contains About Regular Grammat used in Theory Of Computation.

Phrasal Verbs

Phrasal Verbs are very important in competitive exam in English category. Here are some useful phrasal Verbs

Naration Change

Naration change is must have important Grammar topic for both competitive exam as well as school students

Probability of Modal Verbs

Modal verbs for probabilityA modal verb is a word that expresses mood or attitude toward the action verb.  Obligation  - must, have to, ought to, be supposed to, should  Volition     - want to, would like to, intend to  Ability      - can, could, be able to  Desire      - want, want to, would like to, like to, love to, would love/hate to  Probability  - may be, might be, could be, can be, will be.Using modal verbs to express probability is sometimes a source of confusion for English learners.The modal verbs below are the indicative case. They indicate a fact or actuality.Indicative  100%  90%   80%   70%   60%   50%  shall   will   want to  must  can   mayIf the Almighty says it shall rain, then it shall rain with 100% certainty.If the weatherman says it will rain, it will rain with about 90% certainty. (He's only human.)If there are dark, stormy clouds in the sky and the wind is blowing hard, we might say "It wants to rain," but the probability is only around 80% that it will indeed rain.If it hasn't rained in a while, and the humidity is high, you can say "it must rain," but the probability that it will (do as it must) is only around 70%.If the weatherman has said there is a 60% chance of rain, then be prepared because it can rain even if you hope it won't.If the weather report calls for only a 50% chance, then you have more reason to hope, but it may still rain in spite of your optimism.SubjunctiveThe modal verbs below are the subjunctive case. They express what is imagined or wished for. Each indicative modal verb has a subjunctive partner which cuts the probability in half. 50%   45%     40%       35%     30%    25%should  would   would like to  ought to   could   mightWhile a declaration using "shall" shows certain and definite intentions, using "should" throws the intention into complete doubt. If a smoker says "I should quit smoking," there is a 50% chance that he/she won't do it, so it sounds doubtful. However, if your boss says "I should give you a raise," it might sound hopeful to you. Beware though that there is still only a 50% chance that you will get that raise, so don't count on it too heavily.If you ask a friend to help you do a task, and they reply "I would..," then you know you will soon hear the word "but..," and the chances that your friend will actually help you are only 45% - less than half, but still a possibility. Instead of "but" the next word could be "if" which means that if certain conditions are met, your friend would indeed come through for you.If, however, your friend says "I would like to..," you can be sure that the next word is "but" and that the likelihood of getting help from this friend is only 40%.Returning to the smoker who says "I ought to quit smoking," you can be fairly certain that he/she has little intention of quitting. Even if they must (70%), using the words "ought to" drops the probability to a mere 35% leaving major doubt about the smokers intention to quit.Returning to the weather forecast, if the weatherman predicts a 30% chance of rain, we might not be too concerned that it will rain on our picnic, but we should be prepared because it could still rain that day.If the forecast is only for 25%, few of us will worry, but there is still a (slim) chance that it might rain on our picnic nevertheless.Modal Verb Probability Chart 100%    90%    80%        70%      60%     50% shall     will     want to      must     can     may 50%    45%     40%       35%     30%    25% should   would   would like to  ought to   could   mightenglishinteractive.netThe chart above shows the relationships of probability among the modal verbs. The subjunctive partner of each indicative modal verb cuts its probability in half. When using modal verbs to express probability the relationships are somewhat different from the basic meanings. The basic meanings of "must" and "should" are quite close together when they both express obligation. If your parents tell you that you "should" behave, they are politely saying that you "must" behave. According to the probability chart, however, those two are far apart from each other, so they can't be used as synonyms of each other.If you suspect that a situation exists, the strongest probability that you can assign that suspicion is 70%. That is, the situation must exist. (- as far as you know - Otherwise, you could say that it does exist.) Saying "the situation should exist," at 50%, drops the probability a full 20% below "must exist," so it isn't interchangeable in this sense. Something must be the matter with Molly today. She may be angry about something. She could be upset about her exams, but she should have passed them easily. She can't be upset about her upcoming birthday, because she should be getting that car she wanted. She must be happy about that.She could be upset about her computer. It must be broken again. She just had it repaired, so it should be working fine.