Knowledge in Metaphysics


The adaptability of the idea of Augmented Reality, amongst the general population initiated with the involvement of AR bounded games and application, like Pokémon Go and Google Ingress. And within no time these applications took over the minds of the geeky population. At such a moment, we felt it was really important to critically analyze the pros and cons of the thunder, that has started to take over the lives of humans. Will it take over the reality? Is it actually the reality? Are we living in a space of illusion? Is it the time to get enlightened? Or it is just a wave which needs us to hold back our position? 


From all the research we did, there were some refutes to how universe is singular and alone. That, we may be a projection. That, we may be alone in the dark space. But the common notion, backed by religion, philosophers and science, has been that our universe is not alone. Our universe exists. And, it may have only a neighbor, or there may be an entire horde of universes near ours. But as of all we know, we have at least one universe, with maybe an earth with humans who as of now, are writing a similar report on how they are alone or not in the wide dimensions of space and time.

Carbon and its Compounds

Carbon and its Properties,Classification of Elements

Energy and Power

Work,Power,Energy,Mechanical Energy,Collisions,

Physics Lab Manual and Experiments.

Physics has changed our world drastically. So applying in real life and doing experiments show its real applications.

Physics for KIIT University

Study material on Physics for

Quantum Mechanics- 2nd Semester-KIIT

Notes on Quantum Mechanics By Naghban Shanti- Professor at KIIT University / Year: 2018-19

Friction- A necessary evil

Notes - Quick Definitons Friction Whenever there is a relative motion between two bodies in contact. An opposing force comes into act called as force of friction. Friction arises only when there is a relative motion between two bodies in contact. It is always opposite to the direction of motion. Cause of Friction The cause of friction are:- I)The microscope irregularities between two surfaces in contact. II)The intermolecular force of attraction. The magnitude of force of friction depends on :- A)The nature of two surfaces in contact. B)Actual area in contact between them. C)The normal reaction force between the two surfaces. Types of Friction Friction is of following three types :- Sliding Friction Rolling Friction Fluid Friction Sliding Friction The force of friction which comes into act when one body slides over the other is called as sliding friction. Sliding friction is weaker than static friction. That’s why it’s easier to slide a piece of furniture over the floor after you start it moving than it is to get it moving in the first place. Sliding friction can be useful. For example, you use sliding friction when you write with a pencil. The pencil “lead” slides easily over the paper, but there’s just enough friction between the pencil and paper to leave a mark. Sliding friction is also of following types. :- A)Static B)Limiting C)Dynamic A)Static Friction It is the force of friction which comes into act when one body tends to slide over the other but actually there is no motion. B)Limiting Friction It is the maximum value of force of friction so long as there is no actual motion between two bodies in contact, i.e. maximum value of static friction. C)Dynamic or Kinetic Friction It is the force of friction which comes into act when one body actually moves over the other. It is independant of the velocity of the body. Rolling Friction The force of friction which comes into act between two bodies when one body rolls over the other is called as rolling friction. Force of rolling friction is less than that of sliding friction as the actual area in contact is less in that of rolling friction. Rolling friction is much weaker than sliding friction or static friction. This explains why most forms of ground transportation use wheels, including bicycles, cars, 4-wheelers, roller skates, scooters, and skateboards. Ball bearings are another use of rolling friction. Fluid Friction The force of friction which comes into act when one body moves in a fluid is called as fluid friction. A fluid is a substance that can flow and take the shape of its container. Fluids include liquids and gases. If you’ve ever tried to push your open hand through the water in a tub or pool, then you’ve experienced fluid friction. Angle of Repose Angle of repose is the angle made by the inclined plane with the horizontal such that the body placed over it begins to slide. Angle of friction Angle of friction is the angle made by the resultant of normal reaction force and force of friction with the normal reaction force To see the formulas of the above definitions, refer to the pdf given


Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields. Electric currents and the magnetic moments of elementary particles give rise to a magnetic field, which acts on other currents and magnetic moments. Magnetism is used in components such as generators, speakers, etc. For more information, please refer to the document attached.

Magnetic effects of current

The rate of flow of charge is called current.It is always directed from +ve to -ve terminal of the circuit.It is a scalar quantity as it doesn't obey the law of vector addition.Its S.I unit is Ampere. Ohm's law:The potential difference across the two ends of the resisitor is directly proportional to current flowing through it provided the temparature remains same.                                                                                                                 V=IR The opposition to the flow of current is called resistance .It depends upon length,cross-sectional area ,temparature & the nature of the material.Its S.I unit is ohm.                                                                                                                  R=pL/A where,p  is the resistivity of the material. Biot-Savart law The magnitude of a magnetic field at any point due to a current carrying conductor depends upon the current flowing through it,the length element,sin of angle between the position vector and current & inversely proportional to the square of distance of the point from the conductor. ~applications~ 1.Magnetic field due to a straight current carrying conductor. 2.Magnetic field at the centre of the current carrying coil. 3.Magnetic field at the axis of the current carrying coil. Lorentz force When a charge particle moves in a region having both electric & magnetic field then it will experience force by both electric & magnetic field.The vector sum of these two field together is called lorentz force. Cyclotron It is a device which is used to accelerate charge particles in successive steps under the influence of both electric & magnetic field.It consists of two DeesThe electric field helps in accerlation of the particles & the magnetic field helps in circulation of those charged particles in the two semicircular hollow dees separated by a small distance which is set by an alternate source.The whole setup is placed perpendicularly between two pole pieces of magnet.It is only applicable for charged particles because of the relativistic increase in the mass of the charged particles which makes it less energetic.

Electromagnetic Induction

The no. of magnetic field lines passing perpendicularly to a surface is called as magnetic flux.Its S.I unit is Tesla m2 Faraday's experiment He maintained arelative motion between a magnet & a closed coil containing a galvanometer.He found that whenever the northpole of a magnet was moving away or toward the coil the galvanometer showed deflection.This shows that due to the presence of magnet some field lines are connected to the coil,whenever the position of the coil changes the magnetic field lines linked with the coil also changes. For this,an emf is induced in the coil which lasts as long as the change in magnetic flux continues.This is called electromagnetic induction. Lenzs law An emf is produced in the coil such that it opposes the cause which produces it. Whenever the northpole of the magnet was moved towards the coil an induced current is generated in an anticlockwise manner & if the northpole of the magnet is moved away from the coil,the induced current is generated in the clockwise manner. Motional emf The developement of emf in a conductor or a coil when it is moved in a fixed magnetic field. Self-induction Whenever there's a change in emf in a conductor or a coil due to change in its own current is called self-induction Mutual-induction Whenever there's a change in the secondary coil due to the change in current in the primary coil is called mutual induction. 

1st Semester,Physics,KIIT University,B.Tech

Specially for KIIT University