Knowledge in Computer Security & Cryptography

Hacker HighSchool books

The attatchhment below contains certain Hacking books for high school students. Computer science students who are interested in studying Computer Security & Cryptography can refer to the material given below. Contents- Email security, passwords, forensics, glossary, etc.

Who’s watching you? | Discussion on Privacy, Track

The above title sounds like a common horror movie’s dialogue, but it has an important place in the world of the Internet. Just imagine that you are surfing the Internet on your PC, sitting on an Armchair, unaware of a dark shadow standing behind you. Watching all your activity, watching each word that you type; What will be your reaction? For me, I will just run away. But, when we look at your daily websites from a technical view, there are a lot of shadows hidden from your eyes that are watching all your activity, following you with your each click. Mainly, this whole process of tracking & following is used to gain information about the web user and change the internet of ads according to it. (Remember when you viewed an item on an E-commerce site and just after that every website you visit contain ads related to that product.) And this analysis of visitor behaviour is known as Website visitor tracking or WVT. Is it Useful or Harmful? It is useful for the economy as that analysis of the individual’s web activity can be used to provide that visitor with content related to his/her preferences and it could be either during or after a visit on the site. But somehow, the use of WVT technologies is controversial. As it also has an added danger of selling or theft of personal data along its usage by spammers and hackers. And according to internet rules and acts of various regions, if this thing is done without the knowledge of a user, it’s considered a breach of browser security. Not for sure something big, but you can do something against it, if it feels bad to you. Thinking to take an action? Before you make your way to the court or police station, make sure that you didn’t give them permission to track or watch you. (No, never! Why would I do that?) Actually, over 97% of you did. How? Did anyone of you ever read those Terms and Conditions before accepting them? Who has got time for that? Right? NO! If you did read those terms and conditions before signing up for your social network account or your email. If you will read them, you will find that you have given them proper permission to track you, follow you and also, to use the Cookies. Wait, What are the cookies? Right now, many of you are having this question in your mind. You have heard of this terms in a lot of web articles and also, from your Mom’s mouth. But these cookies doesn’t taste as good as your mother’s cookies. So, in actual, Cookies are the text bits that your browser download as you surf the web. And these carry some useful information about your interaction with the web. So, if you visit a website that you have visited before, your browser and the website as well, will know that you have been there before. And if you use a different computer, open a new web browser or delete your cookies, the will treat you as this is your first visit at that place. This helps in better and improved functioning of browser; They try to learn your preferences (They remember the volume of the video player that you used last time); they try to understand the users (You always see the top stories according to your interests in the newsfeed.) and with these small things they try to make user experience better. Do I need to worry? I will not say that you have to worry too much, but as I said above, if I was at your place, I will not stay tension free, at all. So, what can you do about that? I have already shared a lot of tips to for a more private browsing that you can read anytime, but if you still worry about your Cookies. Here are some tips to protect your cookies (You can use them in both, your real and virtual life): ## Eat them in a private place: You can do your daily searches in incognito mode or surf the whole web in an Anonymous mode. I mean, just do the work that needs privacy in a private manner. And if you want to do it in a simple way, just go incognito mode. (Using chrome? Press ctrl+shift+N) ## Keep you cookies in a Jar: You can use a privacy protection softwareor a simple browser extension to block all the trackers. And also, you can use your basic knowledge to save your cookies. In other words, delete your cookies at a regular interval and use the private mode whenever you can. ## Cookies are not for Sharing: Seriously, just like the passwords, don’t let anyone steal your cookies. Even if that person is your friend, never share your browser’s data with him. (This is 21st century and you can only trust that man in the mirror.) You never know what that person can use that information for, from cracking your passwords to hacking your private life. I hope that this article taught you something. And make sure you read those terms & conditions before accepting them. 

India on the Internet|Reports & Studies

Today we are here to know about the India, the country of vast culture & languages. We will check its performance & influence over the Internet, along with some reports & studies to help us know better. Indian internet population- India has 45 million users on Facebook, 15 million on twitter and 45 million on LinkedIn from the total 125 million Internet users. (The amount is still growing.) And the 60% of social traffic comes from the non-metro cities of India. This shows us the wide range of Internet users in India and tells us that how important isInternet security for India, that Government should take seriously as a Big concern. Mobile users- With the growth of smartphones in today’s world, the number of Internet users is greatly affected. There are more than 92+ Million active social media users that access accounts using their cell phones. This emerges the need of Moblie safety & self-awareness about the Internet scams & scandals that are very popular & can be financially harmful in today’s digital dependent world. Kids on Social Networks- Do you know that on most of the social networking sites just allow people above 13 years of age to make an account? Yes, of course. But, according to a survey done by ASSOCHAM,about 73% of children from tier-I & II cities between age of 8 to 13 are using facebook and social networking sites. And this reveals a sad side of the Internet as in most cases, their elders/parents know about this & still they just don’t care. However, many of them repent as their kids became addict to it. And it has many other bad effects along that including CyberBullying, online threat & immoral development. And at the time of this survey’s release, the Secretary-General of the organisation, Mr. D S Rawat said, “children are gaining access to social media sites at a younger age, which could expose them to content, people or situations that are out of their depth.” So, what did he warned us about? If we check several other surveys, we will found that the majority of CyberBullying cases are about the children from the same age group (8 to 13). This tells us about how parents are leading children to a worse road of life. E-commerce- The Indian “online” advertising market has crossed Rs. 3000 cr. and the e-Commerce of India has crossed $24 billion (Rs 1,08,000 crores) which displays that increasing impact & influence of online market over the local markets, now the e-stores like Flipkart, Amazon, Snapdeal etc. are ruling the consumer’s world, this e-market of India was $2.5 billion in 2009, it went up to $6.3b in 2011 & to $14b in 2012 and is still increasing along with the time. And according to Google India, there were 35 million online shoppers in India in 2014 which is expected to cross 100 million by 2017. There is no other opinion that Indians has a very & great impact on the Internet & its population, but it still need a lot of improvement & development in its several sectors including awareness & security of the Web. You can share you views & suggest us something in the comments below, we are waiting eagerly. Thank you for reading. 

Women and the Internet | The Story

“You educate a man; you educate a man. You educate a woman; you educate a generation.” ― Brigham Young Today, we will learn about the mighty woman and how she uses the internet, also how safe is the internet for her usage. So, what’s the problem? The problem isn’t only that women are more likely to be treated badly on the web, but also that most of the women don’t take action against it. According to several research & surveys, women are more targeted in cyber crimes and due to this many ladies just don’t use the internet as they are afraid of it. Even if we check the tech industry, we will find that we’re missing out on the innovations and creations that the ladies our globe can make. So, the problem is not only the ways of treatment, but also the ways in which we react to it. If more women are tech geeks or at least have some good basics of its working they can make this place safer, not only for themselves, but for every internet user. What are its main causes? Coming to the causes of this problem there are various factors that we need to observe carefully: There are many pervs on the web: This was one of the comments that I got on the poll and I agree with the commentator. The internet is full of people that just use it for teasing others, the motive could be something serious or something crappy as flirting. But seriously this needs to be stopped! (Angry) They don’t fight back: Every time a woman receives a spam message from anyone she has a choice to ignore or make him realise his place, but unfortunately 4 out of every 5 women choose to just ignore the person. I believe that if they made at least one guy understand his mistake than no one else will dare to do something like that again. (Surprised) Lack of knowledge: If we talk about a particular country then there are more tech geek women in US who have that great knowledge that I can’t imagine, but when we see from the global view the is a scarcity of women are interested in the scene behind the working web. Many women use the web, but as compared the men only a few of them try to learn about the working of the internet or its security. (Sad) Lack of the resources:  The number of encouragements, the number of teachers and the number of resources to make people learn about the web is very low. If we check the today’s schools, their computer classes teach us Excel, word or sometimes one paragraph of antivirus. But the number of resources that can actually show us the real face of the internet and how it is affecting our life is very less. Due to this not only women, but everyone is highly affected. (Strange, but true.) The stereotype thinking: We keep on thinking that men are responsible for the safety of the women but in real the women are more responsible for their protection. I think that women don’t need these so called “strong” men for them, they can become independent if we stop treating them as inferior, even this article feels like that, but it is important as a wake-up call for them, whose motto is to make them realise the issues, their causes and some of the solutions. Let’s talk about the solutions: “We do not need to attend classroom training programmes for everything. Observation opens the windows of knowledge around us.”  Lend a hand to help: There are numerous computer bloggers and geeks like me here and if we all worked to teach others what we know we will be albe to bring a change. At starting is will be small, but it will gain power as it will spread by person to person like a viral disease; disease to be safe and make others safe too. (We are the Change!) World cheat the fools only: One of the commentators said that web is not safe for idiots or people who can’t handle themselves. She meant that internet is just like the real world economy; the game of the name. If we learnt about the psychology of this virtual world along with its working, we can easily fight back most of the convicts present out there. Sharing is Saving: Girls keep on sharing all the stuff with their gossip gals so, why not some techy girls or even boys share these things with their best buddies so that they can make their circles safe on the web. Using internet for the internet: What can’t we learn from the web? We can also use it for its own safety, Internet is full of blogs like ours where you can learn and also share things related to the web & its safety. Share & Solve: If we kept our problems hidden deep inside us then there will be no solution to them. You can share your problems with anyone you trust, it can be your friends, family members or anyone. You can also share your problems with us anonymously using our confession service. And if someone shares his/her problem with you, you can use your skills to solve their problem and together make the world safe. What else is important? Once we have ensured everyone’s safety it is important that we end their fear too. As I wrote above, some people don’t use internet because they are afraid of it, but if we want we can make them realise it is not something to fear, rather it is more useful than your maths teacher. There are many organisations like Google working to get the women, also men on the internet. We can also ask teach our known ones to try the internet of things for anything they want, from cooking recipes to husband repairing. .

How to protect your Privacy Online?

The Internet is flooded with numerous trackers, advertisers & unwanted beacons placed on the web by advertising & information selling companies that are interested in your activity, including Google & Facebook. And we don’t know how they collect that information, use that information & even what that information consist of. So, here we are with answers to these numerous question and also how to block them if they affect your privacy. Why companies track your activity? Of course, they do it for money, they collect information about us & our interests then use that information to present some ads related to stuff we like and on the sites we visit. And there are now pop-up ads, ads with music and so on, there are many types of ads, but all have a common target to gain audience’s attention; to gain YOUR attention. How do they do that? They are just like e-drones that move along your every click, keeping an eye on all your internet activity. Remember, when you just checked an item on an e-shopping site and at just next site you will see numerous ads related to that item? This works according to due to their strategy to make you see the things again and again, and convince you to buy them. Even most of the Internet users feel anonymity while browsing, yet their extensive personal information is getting collected within seconds of your clicking on a site. Did this really affect us? If we read the Google’s privacy policy then we will find that this information consists private information including telephony log information,  device-specific information, cookies, name, email address, telephone number or credit card etc. And if we see how Google use that we can get a little satisfaction, but Internet is full of many other trackers beside the normal advertisers that can really affect your personal life & privacy. How to stop/ block them? Blocking any kind of trackers on the Internet is very easy with the help of this easy to use some software that have an ability to cull over 1,900 trackers and 2,300 tracking patterns. We can find a lot of software like that on the web, but I recommend you that you should always read the “Privacy Policies” rather than just ticking the box that says, “I have read and agree to the terms & conditions.” and you will face less crisis and will also tackle a lot of them. If you still have a problem, you can use software like Ghostery, Disconnect or Lightbeam.

Can your browser REALLY protect you from hackers?

Recently held “Pwn2Own hacking challenge” challenged security researchers to hack in major browsers and they were able to all major web browsers, taking home the cash prize of $240,000. It was the second day of the event when Mozilla Firefox, Microsoft Internet Explorer, Google Chrome and Apple Safari got exploited by the researchers. And the impressing thing was that one of them just took a little less than 1 second to exploit Firefox’s out-of-bounds memory vulnerability. Another researcher demonstrated three different browser exploits against IE 11, Chrome and Safari. So, what does this mean for you? This whole story seems to be dangerous and also put a big question mark on the face of the internet security. However, we should remember that these people were some of the best security workers from around the globe, so I would recommend you not to worry much. Still worried? Here are some tips for improving your Internet Security. Antivirus: Your digital life is full of attackers, hackers & viruses so you need an antivirus to protect it. Don’t make your personal life digital: Remember, internet is not a place where you can share or store ALL your personal information including PRIVATE pics, contacts & biodata. Fire up the PC: Turn up the firewall which is present in most of the Operating Systems by default; you just need to turn it on. Avoid public access: Going to the public internet cafes is not at all safe even if they give a great internet speed. When you are using a public PC, there is an added risk of losing your private Information along confidential data. And you have to depend on third party for your security & privacy; you can’t have your antivirus everywhere. Digital scams; attachments & downloads: Ever saw that Spam icon which you don’t care about, check it someday and you will find a bunch of Big & powerful promises and funny jokes, that are actually jokes on you. That all kind of stuff is considered as Spam and it can harm your PC along stealing your data. So whenever you get an email from an unknown or untrusted person always make sure that it’s not a hidden malware. Save your mobile: Nowadays, mobiles are the easiest & popular targets for the hackers, so make sure that you always password lock your phone and avoid storing your personal data on the device. And use the tip mentioned above for avoiding attackers from the emails that you receive in your cell phone. And if you’re engaged in mobile banking then you must have some backup security other than your bank’s protection, for which I suggest the powerful antiviruses like 360 Security. 

Web surfing tips| Kids & Teens

In today’s world, everyone you know surfs Internet and more than half of the Internet’s population consist of Teens & Kids and 72% of all internet users are also active on social media. So today we will share some cool tips that can help in making your digital life more secure. What the Internet knows about You?: Google your Name, email, blog, address & phone number to check your presence on the Internet. And if check yourself, you can use some special websites that are made for this specified purpose:  (Only for US)  (World)  (Good old friend) Other search engines (For full satisfaction) Don’t make your personal life digital: Remember, internet is not a place where you can share or store your personal information including PRIVATE pics, contacts & biodata. (Just stop doing that). Password should be a top secret: I kept on telling people that they should not show, type or tell their passwords to anyone, even their closest friend. But, still people do that and end up crying, so stop doing that.  Phone security is a must: 71% internet users access social media from their cell, so you can guess how important its security is. So make sure that you always password lock your phone and avoid storing your personal data on the device. And if you’re engaged in mobile banking then you must have some backup security other than your bank’s protection, for which I suggest the powerful antiviruses like 360 Security. And avoid picking up calls or checking emails from unknown or untrusted people. Antivirus: Your digital life is full of attackers, hackers & viruses so you need an antivirus to protect it. (If you can’t protect it yourself).

Cyber Bullying | An Introduction

Hello everyone, today we are going to talk about a very important topic, Cyber Bullying. We will know what is it and how is it affecting the life of many internet users. So, What is it? Cyber-Bullying is the verbal, emotional or mental abuse to anyone through the Internet. Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, Tumblr or Skype are the fun & useful sites that we use every day, but they are also the base of the Cyberbullying and most of the victims are students. It’s a kind of Virtual weapon that people use to harm others digitally. How is it growing? It isn’t growing because the no. of Bullies is huge or the victims don’t have the power, but it’s growing because people don’t complain; they just don’t want to fight back! According to a research, Only 1 in 10 victims will report this crime to their parents or any other adult which is the reason they don’t get their problems solved and the victims are 2 to 9 times more likely to commit suicide rather than fighting back. And in today’s world over 80% of teens use their cell phone at regular interval which is the reason that Mobile is the most common medium of bullying. Effect of Cyber Bullying on society & public About 43% of kids have been bullied online and teenage girls are targeted twice then teenage boys. Every 9 out of 10 LGBTQ teens experience harassment online, that again make us question the human rights. This is one of the most common reason for suicide cases in youth. Most of the cases ends leaving the long term or even permanent damage to the victims’ mind. Many teens avoid going to school due to the fear of being bullied and most of them are bullied online. “There are many other aspects related to Cyber Bullying that we need to cover, but you have to wait until the next part is ready where we will discuss the ways to fight this problem.“


The topic discussed in the attatchments below is of the course computer science and subject- Computer Security & Cryptography. The content in the documents below comprises of topics such as Access Control Overview, Identification, Authentication, Authorization, Accountability, Access Control Techniques and Technologies, Access Control Administration, etc. Watch the related videos on this link -

what is Information security?

What is Information Security? Information Security is simply the process of keeping information secure: protecting its availability, integrity, and privacy. Information has been valuable since the dawn of mankind: e.g. where to find food, how to build shelter, etc. As access to computer stored data has increased, Information Security has become correspondingly important. In the past, most corporate assets were “hard” or physical: factories, buildings, land, raw materials, etc. Today far more assets are computer-stored information such as customer lists, proprietary formulas, marketing and sales information, and financial data. Some financial assets only exist as bits stored in various computers. Many businesses are solely based on information – the data IS the business. Information Security is a Process: Effective Information Security incorporates security products, technologies, policies and procedures. No collection of products alone can solve every Information Security issue faced by an organization. More than just a set of technologies and reliance on proven industry practices is required, although both are important.  Products, such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and vulnerability scanners alone are not sufficient to provide effective Information Security. Information Security is a process. An information systems Security Policy is a well-defined and documented set of guidelines that describes how an organization manages, protects its information assets and makes future decisions about its information systems security infrastructure. Security Procedures document precisely how to accomplish a specific task. For example, a Policy may specify that antivirus software is updated on a daily basis, and a Procedure will state exactly how this is to be done – a list of steps. Security is Everyone’s Responsibility: Although some individuals may have “Security” in their title or may deal directly with security on a daily basis, security is everyone’s responsibility. A chain is only as strong as its weakest link. A workplace may have otherwise excellent security, but if a help desk worker readily gives out or resets lost passwords, or employees let others tailgate on their opening secure doors with their keycard, security can be horribly compromised. Despite the robustness of a firewall, if a single user has hardware (e.g. a modem) or software (e.g. some file sharing software) that allows bypassing the firewall, a hacker may gain access with catastrophic results. There are examples where a single firewall misconfiguration of only a few minutes allowed a hacker to gain entrance with disastrous results. Security is an issue during an application’s entire lifecycle. Applications must be designed to be secure, they must be developed with security issues in mind, and they must be deployed securely. Security cannot be an afterthought and be effective. System analysts, architects, and programmers must all understand the Information Security issues and techniques that are germane to their work. End user awareness is critical, as hackers often directly target them. Users should be familiar with Security Policies and should know where the most recent copies can be obtained. Users must know what is expected and required of them. Typically this information should be imparted to users initially as part of the new hire process and refreshed as needed. Information Security involves a Tradeoff between Security and Usability: There is no such thing as a totally secure system – except perhaps one that is entirely unusable by anyone! Corporate Information Security’s goal is to provide an appropriate level of security, based on the value of an organization’s information and its business needs. The more secure a system is, the more inconvenience legitimate users experience in accessing it. Remember, IT - and Information Security are business support functions: Unless a companies business is IT, IT is (one of many) business support functions. Many IT professionals lose perspective - we do not! 


Available below are the notes for the course computer science and subject Computer Security & Cryptography. The documents attatched in the knowledge include topics such as introduction of Bitcoin, How block chains technology is used to make Bitcoin, etc


CoEP Year 2nd Dept Comp DSGT