What is a digital voltmeter? A voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring electric potential difference between two points in an electric circuit. Analog voltmeters move a pointer across a scale in proportion to the voltage of the circuit; digital voltmeters give a numerical display of voltage by use of an analog-to-digital converter


Electric Welding INTRODUCTION Welding is the process of joining two pieces of metal or non-metal together by heating them to their melting point. Filler metal may or may not be used to join two pieces. The physical and mechanical properties of a material to be welded such as melting temperature, density, thermal conductivity, and tensile strength take an important role in welding. Depending upon how the heat applied is created; we get different types of welding such as thermal welding, gas welding, and electric welding. Here in this chapter, we will discuss only about the electric welding and some introduction to other modern welding techniques. Welding is nowadays extensively used in automobile industry, pipe-line fabrication in thermal power plants, machine repair work, machine frames, etc. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF WELDING Some of the advantages of welding are: o Welding is the most economical method to permanently join two metal parts. o It provides design flexibility. o Welding equipment is not so costly. o It joins all the commercial metals. o Both similar and dissimilar metals can be joined by welding. o Portable welding equipment are available. Some of the disadvantages of welding are: o Welding gives out harmful radiations and fumes. o Welding needs internal inspection. o If welding is not done carefully, it may result in the distortion of workpiece. o Skilled welding is necessary to produce good welding. ELECTRIC WELDING


INTRODUCTION Study of illumination engineering is necessary not only to understand the principles of light control as applied to interior lighting design such as domestic and factory lighting but also to understand outdoor applications such as highway lighting and flood lighting. Now a day, the electrically produced light is preferred to the other source of illumination because of an account of its cleanliness, ease of control, steady light output, low cost, and reliability. The best illumination is that it produces no strain on the eyes. Apart from its esthetic and decorative aspects, good lighting has a strictly utilitarian value in reducing the fatigue of the workers, protecting their health, increasing production, etc.The science of illumination engineering is therefore becoming of major importance.


Mostly quantities to be measured are non-electrical such as temperature, pressure, displacement, humidity, fluid flow, speed etc., but these quantities cannot be measured directly. ... The function of converting non-electrical quantity into electrical one is accomplished by a device called the electrical transducer.


A microprocessor is an electronic component that is used by a computer to do its work. It is a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit chip containing millions of very small components including transistors, resistors, and diodes that work together.


Intel's first 80286 chips were specified for a maximum clockrate of 4, 6 or 8 MHz and later releases for 12.5 MHz. AMD and Harris later produced 16 MHz, 20 MHz and 25 MHz parts, respectively. Intersil and Fujitsu also designed fully static CMOS versions of Intel's original depletion-load nMOS implementation, largely aimed at battery-powered devices. On average, the 80286 was reportedly measured to have a speed of about 0.21 instructions per clock on "typical" programs,[7] although it could be significantly faster on optimized code and in tight loops, as many instructions could execute in 2 clock cycles each. The 6 MHz, 10 MHz and 12 MHz models were reportedly measured to operate at 0.9 MIPS, 1.5 MIPS and 2.66 MIPS respectively.[8] The later E-stepping level of the 80286 was free of the several significant errata that caused problems for programmers and operating-system writers in the earlier B-step and C-step CPUs (common in the AT and AT clones).[9] Architecture Simplified 80286 microarchitecture Intel 80286 die shot Intel did not expect personal computers to use the 286.[10] The CPU was designed for multi-user systems with multitasking applications, including communications (such as automated PBXs) and real-time process control. It had 134,000 transistors and consisted of four independent units: the address unit, bus unit, instruction unit and execution unit, organized into a loosely coupled (buffered) pipeline, just as in the 8086. The significantly increased performance over the 8086 was primarily due to the non-multiplexed address and data buses, more address-calculation hardware (most importantly, a dedicated adder) and a faster (more hardware-based) multiplier.[11] It was produced in a 68-pin package, including PLCC (plastic leaded chip carrier), LCC (leadless chip carrier) and PGA (pin grid array) packages.[12] The performance increase of the 80286 over the 8086 (or 8088) could be more than 100% per clock cycle in many programs (i.e., a doubled performance at the same clock speed). This was a large increase, fully comparable to the speed improvements around a decade later when the i486 (1989) or the original Pentium (1993) were introduced. This was partly due to the non-multiplexed address and data buses, but mainly to the fact that address calculations (such as base+index) were less expensive. They were performed by a dedicated unit in the 80286, while the older 8086 had to do effective address computation using its general ALU, consuming several extra clock cycles in many cases. Also, the 80286 was more efficient in the prefetch of instructions, buffering, execution of jumps, and in complex microcoded numerical operations such as MUL/DIV than its predecessor.[11] The 80286 included, in addition to all of the 8086 instructions, all of the new instructions of the 80186: ENTER, LEAVE, BOUND, INS, OUTS, PUSHA, POPA, PUSH immediate, IMUL immediate, and immediate shifts and rotates. The 80286 also added new instructions for protected mode: ARPL, CLTS, LAR, LGDT, LIDT, LLDT, LMSW, LSL, LTR, SGDT, SIDT, SLDT, SMSW, STR, VERR, and VERW. Some of the instructions for protected mode can (or must) be used in real mode to set up and switch to protected mode, and a few (such as SMSW and LMSW) are useful for real mode itself. The Intel 80286 had a 24-bit address bus and was able to address up to 16 MB of RAM, compared to the 1 MB addressability of its predecessor. However, memory cost and the initial rarity of software using the memory above 1 MB meant that 80286 computers were rarely shipped with more than one megabyte of RAM.[11] Additionally, there was a performance penalty involved in accessing extended memory from real mode (in which DOS, the dominant PC operating system until the mid-1990s, ran), as noted below. Features Siemens 80286 (10 MHz version) IBM 80286 (8 MHz version) Protected mode The 286 was the first of the x86 CPU family to support protected virtual-address mode, commonly called "protected mode". In addition, it was the first commercially available microprocessor with on-chip MMU capabilities (systems using the contemporaneous Motorola 68010 and NS320xx could be equipped with an optional MMU controller). This would allow IBM compatibles to have advanced multitasking OSes for the first time and compete in the Unix-dominated server/workstation market. Several additional instructions were introduced in protected mode of 80286, which are helpful for multitasking operating systems. Another important feature of 80286 is prevention of unauthorized access. This is achieved by: Forming different segments for data, code, and stack, and preventing their overlapping. Assigning privilege levels to each segment. Segments with lower privilege levels cannot access segments with higher privilege levels. In 80286 (and in its co-processor Intel 80287), arithmetic operations can be performed on the following different types of numbers: unsigned packed decimal, unsigned binary, unsigned unpacked decimal, signed binary, floating-point numbers (only with an 80287).


Microprocessor consists of only a Central Processing Unit, whereas Micro Controller contains a CPU, Memory, I/O all integrated into one chip. ... Microprocessor uses an external bus to interface to RAM, ROM, and other peripherals, on the other hand, Microcontroller uses an internal controlling bus.Jul 17, 2020 Difference between Microprocessor and Microcontroller - › difference-between-microprocessor-a... Search for: What is difference between microcontroller and microproces


What is DC motor and how it works? A DC motor is any of a class of rotary electrical motors that converts direct current electrical energy into mechanical energy. The most common types rely on the forces produced by magnetic fields. DC motor - Wikipedia › wiki › DC_motor


Download for Macintosh or for PC. The purpose of this circuit is to amplify a small AC input signal, such as an audio or radio frequency signal. A small AC voltage is applied to the input, through a coupling capacitor. Common Emitter AC › ~toh › ElectroSim › CommonE...


Quick sort is a highly efficient sorting algorithm and is based on partitioning of array of data into smaller arrays. A large array is partitioned into two arrays one of which holds values smaller than the specified value, say pivot, based on which the partition is made and another array holds values greater than the pivot value. Quicksort partitions an array and then calls itself recursively twice to sort the two resulting subarrays. This algorithm is quite efficient for large-sized data sets as its average and worst-case complexity are O(nLogn) and image.png(n2), respectively. Partition in Quick Sort Following animated representation explains how to find the pivot value in an array.

Voltage and Current Profile

Voltage and Current Profile Improvement of a PV-integrated Grid system employing Sinusoidal Current Control Strategy based Unified Power Quality Conditioner Abstract- The basic aim of the electric power sector is to produce power as when required at the suitable sites, then transmitting and distributing to various load centres retaining the quality and fidelity of supply with economical tariff. This paper focuses on mitigation of power quality (PQ) issues in a PV-integrated grid system by implementing constant Sinusoidal current control strategy (SCCS) based simulation of UPQC (Unified Power Quality Conditioner) using MATLAB R2016a in association with various loads.

smart grid

Abstract- The basic aim of the electric power sector is to produce power as when required at the suitable sites, then transmitting and distributing to various load centres retaining the quality and fidelity of supply with economical tariff. This paper focuses on mitigation of power quality (PQ) issues in a PV-integrated grid system by implementing constant Sinusoidal current control strategy (SCCS) based simulation of UPQC (Unified Power Quality Conditioner) using MATLAB R2016a in association with various loads.